The earliest canal in Canada and in North America was that at Lachine, which dates back to the beginning of the eighteenth century. Between 1779 and 1783, lock canals were built by the Royal Engineers, at the Coteau and the Cascades, on the St. Lawrence. In 1798 a boat canal was built at Sault Ste. Marie by the North West Company. A canal to connect the St. Lawrence and Lake Champlain was advocated as early as 1775, by Silas Deane of Connecticut, but was not actually undertaken until 1831. The Welland Canal was commenced in 1824; and the Rideau Canal two years later. These artificial waterways of Canada are controlled by the Department of Railways and Canals, of the Dominion government.
   Index: Bk First in American continent made in Canada, 48. BL Construction and improvement of, provided for by government in 1841, 98; completion of St. Lawrence canals, 286-287. B Improvement of, advocated by George Brown, 61; extension of, approved by Quebec Conference, 166; enlargement of, suggested by Fish, United States secretary of state, in 1874, 227. S Four made at different points on St. Lawrence, 112. P Opposed by Papineau, 172.
   See also Waterways; and under names of individual canals, as Lachine; Rideau; Welland, etc.
   Bib.: Keefer, Canals of Canada (R. S. C., 1893); Waterways of Canada (Women's Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, Trans., vol. 2); Kingsford, Canadian Canals; Report of Royal Commission on Canals, 1871; Annual Reports on Railways and Canals, Ottawa.

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